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Show other formats. Discover what to read next. Holiday Gift Guide Some blended wine names are marketing terms whose use is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. Commercial use of the term Meritage is allowed only via licensing agreements with the Meritage Association.
New World wines —those made outside the traditional wine regions of Europe—are usually classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin, although there have been unofficial attempts to classify them by quality. According to Canadian Food and Drug Regulations, wine in Canada is an alcoholic drink that is produced by the complete or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, grape must, products derived solely from fresh grapes, or any combination of them.
There are many materials added during the course of the manufacture, such as yeast, concentrated grape juice, dextrose, fructose, glucose or glucose solids, invert sugar, sugar, or aqueous solutions. Calcium sulphate in such quantity that the content of soluble sulphates in the finished wine shall not exceed 0. Calcium carbonate in such quantity that the content of tartaric acid in the finished wine shall not be less than 0. Also, sulphurous acid, including salts thereof, in such quantity that its content in the finished wine shall not exceed 70 parts per million in the free state, or parts per million in the combined state, calculated as sulphur dioxide.
Caramel, amylase and pectinase at a maximum level of use consistent with good manufacturing practice.
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Brandy, fruit spirit or alcohol derived from the alcoholic fermentation of a food source distilled to not less than 94 per cent alcohol by volume. Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate's impact on the character of a wine can be significant enough to cause different vintages from the same vineyard to vary dramatically in flavor and quality.
Superior vintages from reputable producers and regions will often command much higher prices than their average ones.
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Some vintage wines e. Brunello , are only made in better-than-average years. For consistency, non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage, which helps wine-makers sustain a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine.
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Wines contain many chemical compounds similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine. Dry wine , for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar.
Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving, while others recommend drinking it immediately. Decanting the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing is a controversial subject among wine enthusiasts.
In addition to aeration, decanting with a filter allows the removal of bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles, but aeration may benefit younger wines. During aeration, a younger wine's exposure to air often "relaxes" the drink, making it smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor.
Older wines generally fade lose their character and flavor intensity with extended aeration. Wine may be tasted as soon as the bottle is opened to determine how long it should be aerated, if at all. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine-making. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine—chocolate, vanilla, or coffee—are those imparted by aging in oak casks rather than the grape itself.
Vertical and horizontal tasting involves a range of vintages within the same grape and vineyard, or the latter in which there is one vintage from multiple vineyards. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds released into the air. Many drinkers prefer to chill red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon and Beaujolais. The ideal temperature for serving a particular wine is a matter of debate by wine enthusiasts and sommeliers, but some broad guidelines have emerged that will generally enhance the experience of tasting certain common wines.
Light red wines drunk young should also be brought to the table at this temperature, where they will quickly rise a few degrees. Particular selections have higher value, such as "Verticals", in which a range of vintages of a specific grape and vineyard, are offered. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux and Burgundy ; cult wines from Europe and elsewhere; and vintage port.
Characteristics of highly collectible wines include:. Investment in fine wine has attracted those who take advantage of their victims' relative ignorance of this wine market sector. As with any investment, thorough research is essential to making an informed decision. Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between 30 and 50 degrees latitude north and south of the equator. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south ,  and the northernmost are in Flen , Sweden , just north of the 59th parallel north. The UK was the world's largest importer of wine in Wine-consumption data from a list of countries by alcohol consumption measured in liters of pure ethyl alcohol consumed per capita in a given year, according to the most recent data from the World Health Organization.
The methodology includes persons 15 years of age or older. Wine is a popular and important drink that accompanies and enhances a wide range of cuisines, from the simple and traditional stews to the most sophisticated and complex haute cuisines. Wine is often served with dinner. Sweet dessert wines may be served with the dessert course. In fine restaurants in Western countries, wine typically accompanies dinner.
At a restaurant, patrons are helped to make good food-wine pairings by the restaurant's sommelier or wine waiter. Individuals dining at home may use wine guides to help make food—wine pairings. Wine is also drunk without the accompaniment of a meal in wine bars or with a selection of cheeses at a wine and cheese party. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a drink, but as a flavor agent, primarily in stocks and braising , since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. The use of wine in ancient Near Eastern and Ancient Egyptian religious ceremonies was common.
Libations often included wine, and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat. On Pesach Passover during the Seder, it is a Rabbinic obligation of adults to drink four cups of wine. And due to the danger, those who live in a place where blood libels occur are halachically exempted from using red wine, lest it be seized as "evidence" against them. In Christianity , wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist , which originates in the Gospel account of the Last Supper Gospel of Luke describing Jesus sharing bread and wine with his disciples and commanding them to "do this in remembrance of me.
While some Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for the validity of the sacrament , many Protestants also allow or require pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice.
Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice, and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States, as well as to other countries to a lesser degree. Alcoholic drinks, including wine, are forbidden under most interpretations of Islamic law. Iran had previously had a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in Some Alevi sects — one of the two main branches of Islam in Turkey the other being Sunni Islam — use wine in their religious services.
Certain exceptions to the ban on alcohol apply. Alcohol derived from a source other than the grape or its byproducts and the date  is allowed in "very small quantities" loosely defined as a quantity that does not cause intoxication under the Sunni Hanafi madhab , for specific purposes such as medicines , where the goal is not intoxication.
However, modern Hanafi scholars regard alcohol consumption as totally forbidden. Wine contains ethyl alcohol , the same chemical that is present in beer and distilled spirits and as such, wine consumption has short-term psychological and physiological effects on the user. Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person.
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The effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the wine and the timespan that the consumption took place, the amount of food eaten and whether an individual has taken other prescription, over-the-counter or street drugs , among other factors. Drinking enough to cause a blood alcohol concentration BAC of 0.
A BAC of 0. A BAC from 0. As with all alcoholic drinks, drinking while driving , operating an aircraft or heavy machinery increases the risk of an accident; many countries have penalties against drunk driving. Wines can trigger positive emotions in a short period of time, such as feelings of relaxation and comfort.
The context and quality of wine can affect the mood and emotions, too. The main active ingredient of wine is alcohol, and therefore, the health effects of alcohol apply to wine. A systematic review and meta-analysis found that moderate ethanol consumption brought no mortality benefit compared with lifetime abstention from ethanol consumption.
Some of these studies lumped former ethanol drinkers and life-long abstainers into a single group of nondrinkers, hiding the health benefits of life-long abstention from ethanol. Alcoholism is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems.
Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause liver cirrhosis and alcoholism. Consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic drinks is correlated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular causes,  although the association is stronger for wine. Additionally, some studies have found a greater correlation of health benefits with red than white wine, though other studies have found no difference.
Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine, and these could be protective against cardiovascular disease. Although red wine contains the chemical resveratrol and there is tentative evidence it may improve heart health, the evidence is unclear for those at high risk as of [update].